1. Executive Orders
President Trump issued two Executive Orders on March 31, 2017, signaling the new administration’s opposition to unfair trade practices. The first Executive Order (See Original Document Here) directs the Department of Commerce (“DOC”) and the United States Trade Representative (“USTR”) to conduct a broad review of differential tariffs, non-tariff barriers, injurious dumping, injurious government subsidization, intellectual property theft, forced technology transfer, denial of worker rights and labor standards, etc. The second Executive Order (See Original Document Here) aims at the collection of antidumping and countervailing duties. Both address enforcement of violations of U.S. trade laws.
The U.S. estimates that uncollected AD/CVD duties for 2015 reached $2.3 billion. CBP is directed to develop a plan requiring “covered importers” of subject merchandise who pose a risk to the revenue of the United States to provide security through a bond or other legal measure. “Covered importers” are defined as new importers or importers for which the agency has a record of incomplete or late payment of antidumping or countervailing duties. Those benefiting from low bonds should be careful now to ensure timely and sufficient payment of the AD/CVD duties or otherwise be subject to the increased bond requirements.
CBP must “develop and implement a strategy and plan for combating violations of United States trade and customs laws for goods and for enabling interdiction and disposal, including through methods other than seizure, of inadmissible merchandise entering through any mode of transportation.” What “methods of interdiction and disposal other than seizure” means is unknown.
Regarding the protection of intellectual property rights at the border, now the government will share with rights holders, to the extent permitted by law, information necessary to determine whether there has been an IPR infringement and information regarding merchandise that has been abandoned before the seizure. Previously that “commercial proprietary information” was withheld. The change may allow rights holders to sue infringers in U.S. courts or to seek exclusion orders from the International Trade Commission
The Department of Justice (“DOJ”) must “allocate appropriate resources to ensure that Federal prosecutors accord a high priority to prosecuting significant offenses related to violations of trade laws.” Normally, U.S. trade enforcement attorneys who deal with penalty cases are in the Civil Division at DOJ and are not called “prosecutors.” It seems that the Executive Order refers to the prosecution of criminal violations. As we know, federal laws impose criminal sanctions on a wide spectrum of illegal activities, such as fraudulent and/or knowing importation (or facilitation of such importation) of counterfeit merchandise or merchandise whose importation is “contrary to law,” false claims for refund of duties, false classification, false statements, smuggling, etc. We may see more prosecutions of individuals for trade-related cases.
2. Recent AD/CVD Development
AD/CVD cases had already increased under the Obama Administration. In Fiscal Year (FY) 2016, $14 billion in imports were subject to AD/CVD, and CBP collected $1.5 billion in AD/CVD cash deposits. CBP’s collection of AD/CVD cash deposits increased by over 25 percent since FY 2015 and by almost 200 percent since FY 2014. As of the end of FY 2016, $2.8 billion of AD/CVD duties were owed to the U.S. government for imports going back to 2001. With the new emphasis on combating unfair trade practices, we can expect to see continued AD/CVD cases during the Trump Administration.
Below are highlights of recent new AD/CVD petitions:
- April 19, alleging that cold-drawn mechanical tubing from China, Germany, India, Italy, Korea, and Switzerland is sold at less than fair value in the U.S. market and that such goods from China and India are benefitting from countervailable subsidies. The petition alleges dumping margins of 88.82 percent to 188.88 percent for China, 70.53 percent to 148.32 percent for Germany, 25.48 percent for India, 37.23 percent to 69.13 percent for Italy, 12.14 percent to 48.61 percent for Korea, and 40.53 percent to 115.21 percent for Switzerland. (Scope of Investigation Can Be Seen Here).
- April 11 alleging that metal tool chests and cabinets with drawers from China and Vietnam are sold at less than fair value in the U.S. market and that such goods from China are benefitting from countervailable subsidies. The petition alleges dumping margins of 167.5 percent for China and 58.2 percent for Vietnam. (Scope of Investigation Can Be Seen Here).
- March 31 alleging that carton-closing staples from China are sold at less than fair value in the U.S. market. The petition alleges dumping margins ranging from 15.8 percent to 148.8 percent. (Scope of Investigation Can Be Seen Here).
- March 28 alleging that carbon and alloy steel wire rod from Belarus, Italy, Korea, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Arab Emirates, and the United Kingdom is sold at less than fair value in the U.S. market and that CASWR from Italy and Turkey is benefitting from countervailable subsidies. The petition alleges dumping margins of 179.07 percent to 304.94 percent for Belarus, 26.36 percent for Italy, 41.72 percent to 53.09 percent for Korea, 216.50 percent to 821.40 percent for Russia, 159.35 percent to 164.08 percent for South Africa, 32.64 percent for Spain, 45.1 percent for Turkey, 21.64 percent to 61.64 percent for Ukraine, 69.57 percent for the UAE, and 88.25 percent for the UK. (Scope of Investigation Can Be Seen Here).
- March 23 alleging that biodiesel from Argentina and Indonesia is sold at less than fair value in the U.S. market and/or benefitting from countervailable subsidies. The petition alleges numerous subsidy programs in each country as well as dumping margins of 23.3 percent for Argentina and 34.0 percent for Indonesia. (Scope of Investigation Can Be Seen Here).
- Aluminum Trade Enforcement Working Group filed a petition on March 9, alleging that aluminum foil from China is being sold at less than fair value in the U.S. market and/or benefitting from countervailable subsidies. The alleged dumping margins range from 37.57 percent to 134.33 percent. (Scope of Investigation Can Be Seen Here).
- March 7 alleging that silicon metal from Australia, Brazil, Kazakhstan, and Norway is sold at less than fair value in the U.S. market and/or benefiting from countervailable subsidies. The alleged dumping margins are as high as 52.81 percent for Australia, 134.92 percent for Brazil, and 45.66 percent for Norway. The petitioners have also identified several programs in Australia, Brazil, and Kazakhstan as providing unfair subsidies. (Scope of Investigation Can Be Seen Here).
Some other trade remedy cases:
- A Section 201 Petition was filed with USITC for global safeguard relief from imports of crystalline silicon photovoltaic (“CSPV”) cells and modules. Under Section 201 of the Trade Act, domestic industries seriously injured or threatened with serious injury by increased imports may petition the USITC for import relief. The USITC determines whether an article is being imported in such increased quantities that it is a substantial cause of serious injury, or threat thereof, to the U.S. industry producing an article like or directly competitive with the imported article. If the Commission makes an affirmative determination, it recommends to the President relief that would prevent or remedy the injury and facilitate industry adjustment to import competition. The President makes the final decision on whether to provide relief and the amount of relief. Section 201 investigations do not require a finding of an unfair trade practice such as under the antidumping and countervailing duty laws. In this case, the petitioner is seeking the following.
- an additional tariff starting at $0.40/watt per CSPV cell and falling incrementally to $0.33/watt in year four
- a minimum price starting at $0.78/watt per module and falling incrementally to $0.68/watt in year four
- a new economic investment development program funded with the safeguard tariffs
- an equitable distribution of AD and CV duties collected in two existing AD/CV cases
- bilateral and multilateral negotiations to reduce global excess capacity
Some of these measures would likely be in violation of U.S. obligations as a member of the World Trade Organization.
3. Concerns for Your Business
Expanded AD/CVD enforcement can have widespread and varied effects depending on your company’s position in the market. If you are a domestic manufacturer who suffers from unfair trade competition, going forward you may find it easier to file AD/CVD petitions with an increased likelihood of success. If you are a U.S. importer, you should scrutinize your supply chain, making sure the products you import are not subject to the AD/CVD orders or if they are, paying adequate cash deposits. If you are a foreign manufacturer and/or producer exporting subject products to the United States, you may want to participate in the investigation or reviews so you may be qualified for a lower rate. We can help in each case, should you so desire.